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LETRS Unit 3 test answers
Question 1: ________ represents the two major components of learning to read: word recognition and language comprehension.
Question 2: The Reading Rope identifies three major strands or subskills that contribute to printed words ________; phonological awareness, decoding, and sight word recognition.
Question 3: _______ awareness emphasizing the strong predictive relationship between phonemic awareness and learning to read an alphabetic writing system.
Question 4: ________ is the ability to translate a word from print to speech, usually by employing knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences.
Question 5: To know what the word says, the reader must look closely at all the letters and ________ them into sound and sense.
Question 6: ________ is the goal of word study, or the point of learning to decode by phonics and to recognize orthographic patterns, is to develop automatic recognition of words.
Answer: Sight Word Recognition
Question 7: The term __________ refers to three different aspects; phoneme-grapheme correspondence, strategy for decoding new words, and essential component of reading (one of the five pillars).
Question 8: Phonics instruction offers a critical _______ for most students in the regular classroom and in intervention programs.
Question 9: Explicit, _______, cumulative instruction that teaches students to decode graphemes and blend the corresponding phonemes and/or syllables received stronger support in high-level research than other types of instruction.
Question 10: Phonics may not be ______ with a given student if that student’s phonological awareness is seriously underdeveloped because phonemic awareness is the foundation for acquiring decoding skills.
Question 11: Scope and sequence of phonics and word-reading skills determine lesson design and sequence, and type of reading practice. What feature of the reading program?
Question 12: Decodable; contains a high proportion of pattern words that have been taught. What feature of the reading program?
Answer: Texts for Reading
Question 13: Phonemic awareness, explicit phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, writing; use of decodable text at K-1 level. What feature of the reading program?
Question 14: About half the time is spent on word work (phonological awareness, phonics, fluency in word recognition), the rest on language and oral reading in K-1. What feature of the reading program?
Answer: Instructional Time
Question 15: More teacher-led activities; the teacher actively leads students through decoding activities and guided practice. What feature of the reading program?
Answer: Method/Teacher Role
Question 16: Students were asked to look carefully at the word, sound it out, check, and see if it makes sense. What feature of the reading program?
Answer: Corrective Feedback
Question 17: Skill building from sounds to words to sentences to text with a high percentage of words that have been taught. What feature of the reading program?
Answer: Types of Practice
Question 18: Components of a _________ Plan include; stating goal and purpose, practicing phonological awareness, reviewing previous lessons, introducing a new concept, providing guided practice, providing extended practice, practicing dictation, connecting to word meaning, read text.
Answer: Phonics Lesson
Question 1: T/F? Roughly half of all words in English can be spelled correctly based on established sound-symbol correspondences.
Question 2: Complete this sentence: A complex syllable is a syllable that contains a __. a. digraph b. consonant blend c. vowel team d. VCe pattern
Answer: b. consonant blend
Question 3: Complete this sentence: Vowel teams in English can have up to ________ letters. two three four five
Question 4: Which set(s) of words include only words that have consonant digraphs, and no words with blends? Select all that apply. a. father, shin, reach b. cheek, less, silk c. rough, phone, bang d. stripe, laugh, wish
Answer: a. father, shin, reach c. rough, phone, bang
Question 5: Which set of words illustrates both the Floss rule and the “-ck” rule? a. flick, sack, lock b. fuss, cell, will c. soak, flake, lurk d. slick, kiss, cuff
Answer: d. slick, kiss, cuff
Question 1: Students are likely to demonstrate one set of phase characteristics before ________ to the next phase, in which the student’s approach to reading will be qualitatively different from the previous phase.
Question 2: Teaching must be _________ to the appropriate student level for growth to occur.
Question 3: A student knows some, but not all, ________ names and forms; practice alphabet matching, naming, and ordering until alphabet letters can be named in random order and put in order.
Answer: alphabet letter
Question 4: A student may be aware of how _________ looks – alternating letters, spacing, etc.; practice writing the letters until the alphabet can be written to dictation (model), dictation (no model), and memory. Use lowercase for writing; use uppercase and lowercase for naming.
Question 5: A student may not understand the concept of a ________; has little phonemic awareness; Gradually build associations between gestures, keywords, and speech sounds. Emphasize articulation.
Answer: speech sound
Question 6: A student is beginning to match words __ by initial consonants; Blend the parts of compounds, then syllables, then onset-rime units, then phonemes in one-syllable, simple words.
Question 7: A student may lack knowledge of word _ or information required to understand the text; Build vocabulary through read-aloud, theme units, and expressive language games. Stimulate verbal expression through retelling, structured conversation, and question-response routines.
Question 8: A student tries to sound out by associating a sound with ________ letter and, perhaps, another letter or two; guesses at the rest; Match all sounds on consonant and vowel charts to keywords and common spellings.
Question 9: A student wants to _________ on context (e.g., pictures, topical knowledge) to guess at words; Blend known phoneme-grapheme correspondences into words, left to right, as consonants and vowels are learned. Practice automatic recognition of high-frequency words (regular and irregular, a few per week.
Answer: rely on
Question 10: A student begins to read simple ________ with known words; Start to read decodable text with known letter-sound correspondences and high-frequency words.
Question 11: A student attends to books read aloud, _______ and _______ questions, and retells what the reading is about; Browse the text and predict before reading.
Answer: asks and answers
Question 12: A student understands the ______ of classroom instruction; Differentiate question words (who, what, when, where, why, how); ask and answer questions. Retell or summarize what was read.
Question 13: A student writes simple sentences to ________; participates in shared writing; composes orally and attempts new spellings; Begins to spell high-frequency words accurately and to spell regular words by sound.
Question 14: A student can spell words _______, with all the speech sounds represented (letter name spellings still common); Increase knowledge of rhyme patterns, word families, “choice” spellings for consonants, and most common spellings for all vowel sounds.
Question 15: A student shows knowledge of letter ________ and orthographic constraints; Read and spell blends and diagraphs.
Question 16: A student is learning the most common ________ words for reading and spelling; Read and spells words with short vowels, vowel-consonant-e, and inflections such as -ed, -s, and -ing.
Question 17: A student is starting to chunk common ________ and letter sequences – such as -ing and -ack-and to read by analogy; Learn vowel teams and vowel-r patterns.
Question 18: A student can read decodable text, although not _________; commonly reads word by word; Read the decodable text with learned patterns and sight words, increasing fluency. Reread for context if the decoding attempt does not make sense. Partner read; use peer-assisted tutoring routines. Expand theme-related vocabulary. Write and publish the first storybooks.
Question 19: A student can generalize phonics skills to ________ words, then use context as a backup; Increase accuracy and automaticity with high-frequency words and regular words for reading.
Question 20: A student is increasing ________ in the passage; Decode two-syllable and three-syllable words, using the most common syllable division principles.
Question 21: A student recognizes more than 200 ________ words by sight; Increase speed to 60-90 words per minute with independent reading material (95% correct).
Question 22: A student uses context to fully identify the ________ of new words; Expand vocabulary at the rate of 800 or more words per year through second grade, then at the rate of 2,000 words per.
Question 23: A student can employ beginning comprehension ________ – browsing, anticipating, questioning, clarifying, retelling, and summarizing – with teacher support; Deepen awareness of different genres-narrative and expository-and how they are organized.
Question 24: A student can _________ readable compositions with capitals, end punctuation, and most words spelled correctly or phonetically; Plan before writing and stick to the plan.
Question 25: If students are lacking basic phonemic awareness, it is likely that their needs fit the profile of _________ learners.
Answer: pre alphabetic
Question 26: If students have partial phonemic awareness, but not full phonemic awareness, and are beginning to pair alphabet letters with sounds, the students may fit the profile of _______ learners.
Answer: early alphabetic
Question 27: If students have phonemic awareness and can spell each sound phonetically, but are just learning how printed words are actually spelled, they are likely in the ________ phase.
Answer: later alphabetic
Question 28: If students have phonemic awareness and knowledge of basic phonics but need to read whole words, syllables, and morphemes with more fluency, they are probably in the ________ phase.
Answer: consolidated alphabetic
Question 29: One of Ehri’s most important points is that sight word learning – fast recognition of words – is ________ by and correlated with phonic knowledge, or the ability to match phonemes and graphemes rapidly and accurately.
Question 30: The most direct way to measure automatic recognition of real words is with graded lists, read under ________ and conditions.
Answer: timed and untimed
Question 1: Students should be introduced to one new letter name every ________ or ________ day.
Answer: one or two
Question 2: During the first _______ weeks of Kindergarten, the names of all the letters, uppercase and lowercase, should be directly taught through a combination of direct teaching and play-based experience with manipulatives.
Question 3: Knowledge of letter names and fluency in letter naming in Kindergarten are among the best _________ for later reading success.
Question 4: ________ of letter naming include; the beginning of orthographic processing;discrimination of confusable letters, clues of phoneme-grapheme matching, spelling (orally and silent) requires memory for letter names.
Question 5: Early Kindergarten students need daily experiences with hands-on ________ such as alphabet puzzles; shapes for letter building, sand tracing, whipped cream, sandpaper, or templates for matching wooden or plastic letter shapes.
Question 6: Before asking young children to hold a pencil and control it in a small space, teachers by writing large objects or ________ shapes.
Question 7: Young learners need ________ guidelines to learn the differences between tall letters, short letters, and letters below the baseline.
Question 8: When children learn to write individual letters, they are developing both (hand movement) and _________ (letter recognition) skills.
Answer: graphomotor and orthographic
Question 9: Effective teaching for writing includes; descriptions and verbal coaching and showing model letters with numbers indicating the sequence of strokes.
Answer: verbal; arrows
Question 10: These letters require a _________ circle; a,c,o,d,g,q.
Question 11: These letters require a ________ first line; b,f,h,l,j.i,k,m,n,p,r,t,u
Question 12: These letters with ________ lines and diagonals; e,s,v,w,x,y,z
Question 13: The _________ of every instructional sequence is accurate, automatic word recognition, and/or recall of specific words for writing.
Question 14: Teachers should follow a __________ to teach new correspondences explicitly.
Question 15: It is _________ to ask students to write lengthy compositions by hand before they have automatized good letter-formation habits.
Question 16: ________ procedures are best introduced in phonics lessons using simple CVC words (e.g., sun, mop, red) that do not have blends.
Question 17: Encourage students to begin to blend words silently or in a ________ before saying the whole word aloud.
Question 1: To reinforce the mental habit of using ________ skills, each lesson should provide practice reading between 15-30 words that have the sound-symbol correspondences that the students have been taught.
Answer: phonic decoding
Question 2: Sounds and graphemes must be processed to commit a word to ________.
Question 3: In a ________ sort, the teacher tells the students how to sort the words and receives the names of the categories. Closed sorts are more structured than open sorts and are excellent for guided practice of a concept that has been taught.
Question 4: ________ sorts are open-ended and therefore more difficult than closed sorts. Not all words fit into the specified categories; some fit in doesn’t belong.
Question 5: It is important to be clear whether students should sort words by sound or spelling _________.
Question 6: ________ is a good way to reinforce the idea that some graphemes are used only at the ends of words.
Answer: Word building
Question 7: The purpose of a ________ is to give students practice recognizing subtle differences between and among similar-sounding words. Should differ in only one phoneme.
Answer: word chain
Question 8: ________ are groups of words that share recurring rhyme units, meaning the vowel and what follows in a syllable.
Answer: Word Families
Question 9: Some words have _______ which facilitates word recognition, so it is important to teach word meanings to beginning readers.
Answer: multiple meanings
Question 10: Learning multiple meanings of words ________ up word retrieval and word recognition and contributes to both vocabulary development and reading fluency.
Question 11: Words in ________ are helpful for beginning readers.
Question 12: _________ activities in which students must decide if words belong in the same meaning category are also productive for both building the mental dictionary and reinforcing decoding skills.
Answer: Word classification
Question 1: Pattern words that are easy to read are also easy for students to spell.
Question 2: Sentence dictation routines should include reminders about basic writing conventions (e.g., capitalization, end punctuation).
Question 3: Which is the best definition of the term sight words?
Answer: any words a reader can recognize instantly and read
Question 4: A teacher groups the following words on a word wall: mind, kind, find, bind, and rind. What do the words have in common? Select all that apply.
Answer: b. They share a spelling pattern. c. Their spellings are somewhat irregular.
Question 5: How often should teachers introduce students to new irregular, high-frequency words?
Answer: three to five times per week
Question 1: Leveled texts are ranked on objective readability criteria, gradually becoming more difficult as students progress through the levels.
Question 2: If a teacher follows a systematic process for transferring phonics skills to text, it’s reasonable to expect students to read a decodable passage independently after a week of instruction.
Question 3: A school library has available a series of lavishly illustrated predictable texts written in verse. What are the most appropriate ways to use these in the classroom?
Answer: a. Use them as teacher read-aloud to enhance oral language and comprehension skills.
Question 4: Students are reading a decodable text that uses only pattern words or high-frequency words students have been taught. What level of reading accuracy is reasonable to expect?
Question 5: Over the course of a week of phonics instruction, which step in the Transfer to Text Process is the first that can be phased out?
Answer: b. Practice reading skill words in isolation before reading them in a passage.
Question 1: The quality of Tier 2 and Tier 3 instruction is the most important variable affecting student progress in grades K-3.
Question 2: Successful implementation of an RTI or MTSS model depends on collaboration among all faculty.
Question 3: What proportion of students are likely to need Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction even when Tier 1 instruction is effective?
Answer: c. at least 20%
Question 4: Based on the assessment data presented in this session, what can you conclude about how teachers professional development (PD) affects students’ performance outcomes?
Answer: d. PD to build teacher expertise and provide coaching support significantly improved student performance.
Question 5: Your district has selected a solid, research-based core instructional program for reading. Which guideline best explains how an individual teacher should implement this program?
Answer: b. Follow it, but if necessary supplement it, or adjust the pacing to meet students’ needs.